Books and Life: Reflectors

Literature and Life both are two sides of the same coin. Whenever one tries to search for something resemblance between literature and life, will get it. There are many literary works in which, authors have talked about different aspects and phases of life.

Different literary works like novels, stories, plays are to be found where we can find a similarity between our life and the life presented in the work.

Human life is full of various rasa’s. At every phase of life, one comes across something new and can have a different experience of the new rasa of life.

The field of literature is vast and has variousness as like the ocean. In the ocean, one finds different lives with variousness. Similarly, the literature has also variations and different types and subtypes. Poetry, short story and novel are the most written types in literature as per the postmodern context. Among them, the two, short story and novel are well known.

In all these different literature, writers, nowadays, prefer to talk on various subjects and human life through short stories, novels and poetry.

Whenever an author writes, then, one can find resemblance; between his (of the author) own life and the creative work to a certain extent. This is what known as reflection. It’s too natural the availability of similar aspects between fiction and reality. The reason is, the author or any creative writer writes on the bases of some inspiration. This inspiration can be from different mediums and also in a different manner.

People often try to jot down the things and experiences that they have come across on the paper and give them another life. Life is full of experiences. We get different experiences, learn and make progress in life. We use the knowledge, that we gained, in our life and make our life better.

In books, we find such conversations with either self or in some other way. Sometimes we can also find them in the form of characters that have been drawn by the writer. This element can be found in many well-known writers of the world. One, well-known example we have is of WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE. In the plays of Shakespeare, if we analyse deeply then it can be found that he has drawn characters in a way that he has noticed among people. In the character sketch of Shakespearean plays, we find all different shades of human personality.

Another writer who has drawn such images in the writing is Victorian Era writer, Leo Tolstoy. In Tolstoy’s novel, Anna Karenina, we find the character of Anna who represents the situation of the Victorian era and the kind of society was prevailing during that time. Though it has many shades. With different perspectives of literature analysis, we can find many different personalities in the character of Anna.

Apart from that the novel also discusses the culture and the time of change that took place with the arrival of the industrial revolution in history. Similarly, in ancient classical texts of Chaucer and many more great writers of literature have written about life in different ways.

This tradition is so long. If we look from another angle then it can be noticed that the writers have tried to show us different shades and have talked about the life that has changed with the period. In this sense, many more examples can be found around us.

In present times, many books are there which talks about the transition journey of human life. With the arrival of techonology, the life of a human being has been changed to a large extent. It has become now a facilitator who helps us to grow and to connect ourselves with the world as well as provides an opportunity to explore it. In context to it, there is a book which talks about the clash of men and technology.

Except that, the issues of using technology and its diverse effects on humanity and so on so forth have been discussed by the writers as well as people from the ho world. In such books, the threats that are prevailing on humanity as well as those that can come in near future.

I feel that Biographies are one of the most well-known areas where the learning percentage is higher along with other classical texts. The reason behind this can be that they are based on realities. Realistic novels are also such which provides us with many learnings.

This kind of books helps us to develop an attitude that can help one to be a successful person in life as well as it also helps to develop an optimistic attitude towards our own life. It enables one to view things as they are and to accept them. It also strengthens one and makes him/ her ability to stand in any kind of situations in life instead of running away from them.

In this way the book and life both are reflectors. What one experience or whatever kind of situations in life one have that is to be found to some extent in books too. Whatever phase of life is, it is prevailing in books as well. The form can differ, the situations can differ but it helps how to act in such moments of life.

This is how the books and human life are reflectors of each other! And this is the reason may be it is said that books are the best friends of human beings.

Ambitions and Children Growth

The world is filled with various people with various shades of them. Every human being is unique in itself. Everyone is having some iconic characteristics that make one different from the other. But what do we know our potentialities? Or As a parent do we know for what my child is made up of? This question is knocking our door and each one, either he is father or mother or anyone, must have to answer this question to our self.

In the 21st century, the world is breaking all the conventional boundaries and moving ahead with full of enthusiasm. Whoever person is there, he/she is trying and battling to fit themselves with the current trends and time. Today that group is very much important which is going to lead the nation and world in the upcoming future. The teenagers, children of primary or lower primary classes are going to construct and giving new shape to the nation and will direct the nation in another new direction.

Two main people play an important role in constructing and enhancing the lives of such children; they are Parents and Teachers. They are the one who directs and enables the child to stand in the world. But many times it is noticed that in some cases due to rigid or conservative mindsets parent prevents the child growth and leads him or her to the way they want to.

Such cases can be studied and investigated under the banner of Gender Studies. It provides us to think about what we are doing as a parent for my child is it appropriate or not for his life?

Indeed, every parent always expects that in future my child will be on that position or on that post and so on. With such attitude, they do right because it’s a natural reaction of a person towards his or her child, but the problem rises its head when their ambitions cross the way of the progress of their son or daughter.

Here, I would like to clear one thing that this particular attitude is not be found among all. But it is reflected especially in those parents where the problem of the generation gap is at the top. The Generation Gap can not be always reflected directly in a person’s actions. It can be reflected in the way one treats his or her child.

Ambitions are good but when it takes the form of ‘impose’, it becomes harmful. The psychology in regards to child development says that when there is freedom the child grows with all his abilities. All different abilities that lie in the child get develop when there is full freedom. This freedom is not moving outside or any else but it’s psychological. The psychological freedom plays an important role in the process of development of a child both physically as well as psychologically.

When a person lives his life then he lives as per conditions, surroundings and economical strength. Apart from these three other factors like different kinds of facilities, also plays an active role in child development. When a person grows and becomes a parent or father/mother, if he/she implement the way of life they lived on their child then there is no chance of child progress. Rather the child becomes negative towards life and suffers mentally on his lifestyle.

Apart from that, this attitude of expecting their child to be like me is one of the biggest barriers in his progress. The child tries to prove his self and also fulfil the wish of his or her parent. But in doing so, he kills his dreams. He dies internally every day.

It is said that, as a child, it’s his responsibility to fulfil the dreams of parents. But in doing so do we ask our child that whether he/ she is willing to do what we are instructing? Or Do we try to find out what our child desires to be? Where does he see himself in future? The answer in the majority of cases in NO!

This is the point when we put our child to do against his own will. Where we force him to explore the filed which we wish. Instead of letting him search and select bis field by himself and let him/her explore that field. This is the point of transition. This is the point when life takes a new turn. And by not allowing our child to do what he/she wants to; they become the biggest hurdle in the process of growth of a child.

As in all cases, there are always some exceptions. In this case, too, there are exceptions. The time is getting change. People now have begun to move and walk as per the time requires. They have begun to act as it should be. In the context of Parents to this change is getting noticed nowadays; to Whom we call modern parents!

Though still the mentality of preventing the child to go as she/he wishes to exist. It has not been abolished at all. It is still there. It is still prevailing in the society. When it will be removed from its root then only probably actual growth will take place.

If we have a look at these various aspects then it can be seen that it leads us and stimulate several questions in our mind. For example,
Q. Why they always expect that my child should be as I am?
Q. Why they build a child’s life as theirs instead of letting them construct on their own?
Q. Why do they not encourage what the child wants to do?
and many more.

Conclusion:

At last, after this whole discussion, it can be said that problems are there and will remain until there will not be any change in attitude and unless they will not start to accept the existing reality. Until one will not take this step of accepting things as they are the progress of child will remain under suppression. They will never get proper exposure to present and enhance their skills. Because family or home is the first stage to present our skills and it is the foremost place where one can get perfect exposures to grow and develop.

Covid 19 and The World

Today the world has completed almost 10 months with the coronavirus. Today, except few countries almost the majority of the continent of the world is suffering and fighting against an unseen and invisible virus, the corona.

Today, the people have begun to live life with covid 19. They have adopted and accepted that it is not possible to come out from this pendamic at a sudden. We have to live with it by following the norms and rules as well as with proper precautions that have been suggested. 

If we have a look at the data related to covid 19 then it can be seen until today there are more than 37 million people have affected due to the virus across the world.  Though the positive side is more than 28 million people have been recovered from covid. As per reports, more than 10 million people have lost their lives in the pendamic.

If we try to have a look as per the data by each country then, today three major nations are suffering from covid 19; respectively, United States of America, India and third in Brazil. But though in Brazil the rate of cases is getting decrease than before. Till today, in all these countries the number of cases that have been recorded are as under:

USA: 7,682,128 (7.6 million), INDIA: 7,175,880 (7.1 millon), Africa: 1,227,719 (1.2million), Brazil: 5,094,979 (5 million +), Russia: 1,312,310 (1.2 million), Columbia: 911,316 (9 lakhs), Argentina: 894,206 (8 lakhs), Spain: 861,112 ( 8 lakhs), Peru: 849,371 ( 8 lakhs), Maxico:817,503 ( 8 lakhs),

France: 707,469 (7 lakhs), United Kingdom: 603,720 ( 6 lakhs), South Africa: 692,471, Italy: 349,494, Iran: 504,281, Canada: 181,864, UAE: 107,293 New Zeland: 1516, Afghanistan: 39,928.

Many people also have been recovered and now living a new normal life.

The total number of recovery across the world is, around 29 million people have been recovered fron covid. In the recovery from Corona Virus, India is the foremost nation across the globe. India with the lowest death rate of less than 1.8 percent, which is lowest across the world.

Any Pendamic kind of situation or natural disasters while fighting against it, people lose their lives. In this Pendamic too more than a million people have lost their across the globe. As per the recent data provided by WHO, more than 11 million people have lost their lives in the pendamic across the globe.

USA : 213,291, India: 109,856, Brazil: 150,488, Russia: 22,722, Columbia: 27,834, Argentina: 23,868, Canada: 9613, UAE: 446, New Zeland: 25, Spain: 32,929, Peru: 33,305, Mexico: 83,781, France: 32,495, United Kingdom: 42,825, Afghanisatan: 1480, Iran: 28,816, South Africa: 17,780.

Today, the world is in await of vaccine for covid 19. Many research institutions of the world are doing work on it. So that the world can come out from this and we can save the lives and most importantly, can save humanity.

As per the report that was published on 25th September on BBC that, today more than 240 vaccines are under the process of development at different stages. Among them, the most forward is Oxford Vaccine process. The University of Oxford has also begun to work on it and today their research on the vaccine is at an advanced level.

At last, only one thing can be said that the corona is not a big thing, it is harmful but though we can protect and save ourselves by having as well as spreading proper care and awareness among the people. Because at this moment that is the only way to protect ourselves from it.

References:

https://www.who.int/

Cooperative Learning : An Educational Approach

Education is a vast field of research. There are many research is going on, many have been conducted and many is yet to. In education when matter comes for teaching then pedagogies and strategies or techniques become more important.

Every invention comes up with some purpose and betterment in future. In education too, one such invention happened and today it is known as Cooperative learning. This is an approach to teaching that is being used by teachers in the classroom in different ways. So let us explore it.

Definition:

The instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and eachothers learning.

Johnson & Johnson, 1993, p.9, University of Minnesota,USA.

Ross and Smith (1995) describe successful cooperative learning tasks as intellectually demanding, creative, open-ended and involve higher order thinking skills.

The cooperative learning is also known as small group learning. As students work in pair they come to know each other and also it gradually helps them to become better learners and to make good progress. It is a teaching strategy where students with different abilities work together in a group and improve their understanding of the subject matter.

Many scholars have tried to give some tendencies of cooperative learning. Among those many scholars two such scholars have given the characteristics of cooperative learning collaboratively. Those tendencies are respectively, 1. Positive Interdependence 2. Face to Face Interaction 3. Individual and Group accountability 4. Group behaviours or social skills and last one, 5. Group processing.

1. Positive Interdependence

Positive Interdependence is one of the striking feature of cooperative learning. In class every student is with some skill and mastery over it. Cooperative learning is what makes that ability their strength and gives opportunity to use it while working with peers. It helps learners to develop the sk of working with peers and makes them responsible for what they are doing.

In the activity, each and every learner contributes and also becomes responsible for their work while working in groups. It gradually develops the tendency of interdependence among learners and helps to grow.

2. Face to Face Interaction

Face to Face Interaction is one of the important feature of cooperative learning. While working on tasks prvided by teachers, students work by maintaining eye contact with freinds. It means, here, they worl with full of confidence and enthusiasm because while preparing groups teachers makes sure that all the members should be different from one another. Because, I think, then only the goal of bringing best out of them can be fruitful.

There are also other things like, it helps to encourage them for active participation in the group discussions.. Apart from that it alsp helps to build the nature of helping one another and develop supportive attitute among them.

3. Individual and Group accountability

While working with group members, each one of them is accountable to contribute in the work in fair manner. There should not be any kind of imbalance in the contribution. Each one have to work in group by keeping in mind the ultimate goal of them instead of peronal development of them. They have to work by keeping in mind that, a group can develop and grow only if each participant contribute then only it the result will come out as expected.

4. Interpersonal and Small Group skills

Interpersonal or social skills includes the process of making learners socialise. In cooperative learning context these skills are meant for to develop a learner at social level and to inculcate the quality of being socialise. In the classroom teachers purposefully emphasize on these skills while teaching.


While working with students teachers tries to develop many skills under group skills or social skills like, Instructorship, Decision making skill, Trust building, communication and last conflict management skills, how to appreciate group members in learners.

At a whole if we look at interpersonal or group skill development then it can be noticed that it is about to develop the skill of working with and within group. What kind of behaviour and approach one should have while working in team or group, that is what the motive of this stage.

5. Group Processing

This element is for analysis. At this stage every member analyses their own ability of woking together. In Group Processing, every individual works with a goal to be a better performer. The purpose of this stage is to increase the effectiveness of members. For this, they communicate with the other members and express their concerns regarding things as well as celebrate their accomplishments.

Every individual has to develop a tendency of discussion among peers about their progress on the project. Apart from that they also have to disscuss about the ratio of their progress and how we can still make it better? This helps them to develop tendency of building a relationship with the peers and to maintain it for long time.

Strategies:

One of the well known strategy that help one in successful cooperative learning is ‘Think,Pair and Share’. This is an interesting strategy where every individual has to contribute by sharing their ideas on the project.

Pair: After sharing the ideas, they try to make pair of them and share with other members of the group and collectively comes on one conclusion at last.

Share: After arriving on one conclusion, in the last stage all the groups of the class come together and share their views with other groups. They exchange thwir idwas on the project and learns gradually.

There are many scholars who have share their views on the cooperative learning and cooperation in both educational as well as social context. One such scholar Montagu has shared his ideas on importance of cooperation and said that,

Without the cooperation of its members society cannot survive, and the society of man has survived because the cooperativeness of its members made survival possible… It was not an advantageous individual here and there who did so, but the peer group. In human societies the individuals who are most likely to suvive are those who are best enabled to do so by their group.

The Human Revolution, Ashley Montague 1965

Conclusion:

So at conclusion point it can se said that Cooperative learning approach is very good and practical approach to develop the social and personal skills to grow.

References

http://tutorials.istudy.psu.edu/cooperativelearning/cooperativelearning4.html

https://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/cooperative/whatis.htmlhttps://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/cooperative/whatis.html

https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.asec.purdue.edu/lct/hbcu/documents/CooperativeLearning2.pdf&usg=AFQjCNFlYkKk-WNk5lCXpUYceYEaCQHzswhttps://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.asec.purdue.edu/lct/hbcu/documents/CooperativeLearning2.pdf&usg=AFQjCNFlYkKk-WNk5lCXpUYceYEaCQHzsw

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooperative_learning

http://www.co-operation.org/what-is-cooperative-learning

Educationists of The World : Part 1

Hello everyone, today onwards I am going to begin a series of thoughts on education given by various educationists of the world. I will try to cover all major educationists of the world till today. Hope it will be worthful and you all will enjoy and get something out of it.

1. PLATO: An Educationist

If we look back in the ancient history of the world then we find that all major fields of education have been born and brought up in ancient Greece. People used to learn each and everything with full of enthusiasm. With this attitude, they have made many types of research and have given many theories of each field of education. Either it can be a science or arts/humanities or commerce, one can find the theories and contribution of ancient Greek scholars.

Today also I would like to discuss here one such scholar of the ancient world named “PLATO”. Here it should be taken into consideration that we will not focus on all these scholars’ all the contribution. But I will focus on what they have said about education, their ideas on the role of teacher, the role of education in human life and so on.

Biographical Sketch:

It is believed that Great philosopher and poet of the ancient times Plato, was born around 428 BC and was died in 348 BC. Plato was born in ancient Greece/ Greek world. He was a student of the school named Lyceum; which was established by great scholar Socrates. Plato was a student of Socrates and then he established his own school. Plato, at present, is a pivotal figure of Greek or Western Philosophy.

Plato wrote many works in different fields like Philosophy, Politics, Mathematics, Science, Education, etc. If we look back in history then it can be found that, probably, Plato was the first ancient philosopher who has talked about education in a distinct manner. When we talk about education then, we find that he has mainly talked about education in his book named, The Republic”.

The educational ideas of Plato are somewhat also resembled in the present or modern education system. ‘ He held the view that without education, one is not more than a patient who does not want want to change his lifestyle and also wishes to be cured of the disease.’ Therefore he opined that education was an attempt to touch the evil at its source, and reform the wrong ways of living as well as one’s outlook towards life. If we observe the philosophy of Plato on education then it can be seen that, in his view, education is such a powerful thing or force which can transform a vicious person into a virtuous being.

While talking about the question who should be educated? or To whom education should be given? When we talk about Plato’s idea on this question then, it can be seen that Plato was of the opinion that, every citizen of the state must be educated.

For getting an education there is no boundary of age. One can get an education and explore new things as well as fields at any point in life. In the Platonic system of education, we find the same thing but here there is one more element to serve the country. At here, we find the classical element of preparation for war. We know that ancient times war was a very big thing and it’s even today. But the difference is in the pattern and style of war between then and now.

Plato was of the opinion that every citizen must be compulsorily trained to fit into any one class from three, respectively, Ruling, Fighting pr Producing. This thing has been reflected in his education structure. In the Platonic system of education, he has created four different stages. These stages have one important thing for the development of an individual. These stages are 1. At the age of 19, every child must have to undergo military training. This is the step where we find the element of serving the country from beginning itself. 2. Then at the age of 21 they go for higher education. 3. At the age of 30, one should begin to study Philosophy and prepare oneself to become a ruler. 4. At the age of 50 one finally becomes ready to rule over the nation.

Syllabi Structure:

There are two main categories, I have observed, in Platonic structure of content to deliver for students. These stages are Early Education, Elementary Education and Higher Education. At the early stage of education, children should be filled up with three important things. Music, Stories and Arts. According to Plato children should be brought up in a healthy environment where the ideas of Goodness and Truth can be implanted in children’s mind.

Higher education should begin at the age of 20 years. But here we find the similarity between the present education system for higher studies and Plato’s idea of higher education.

According to Plato, there should be an exam to determine whether he/she should go for higher studies or not? At present also this thing is present but the objective behind the exam has been changed.

In the context of education, Plato was of the opinion that, Literature should be in the curriculum from the beginning itself. He had a viewpoint that Literature is very much necessary for an individual. It should be the main source of education. I think he has given importance to literature because it is the most powerful tool through which we can arouse the desire for serving the nation. As Literature is filled with such stuff, especially Classical Literature.

Teaching Method:

We know the Plato was a student of the famous philosopher Socrates. Socrates had evolved his own teaching method. He used to teach his students through the medium of Questioning and Replying/Answer. This method is known as the Socratic Teaching Method. As a student of Socrates, Plato has also opted the same method and favoured it for teaching-learning problems.

In the modern era, the main and major educationist Sir John Dewey has evolved one method that is Learning by Doing. Plato has also favoured the same method in his educational ideas. He was in favour of giving education with freedom. While children should be taught with games. There should not be direct teaching to children. In regard to this Plato has said that,

Knowledge which is acquired under compulsion obtains no hold on mind.

-Plato

Role of Teacher:

Plato was basically a philosopher and also a teacher. Due to this in his ideas of the role of the teacher and how a teacher should be, is also with the effect of philosophy. It can be seen in his saying that, The teacher must know his/her subject, but as a true philosopher, he/she also be aware of their limits.

Plato believed, and demonstrated, that educators must have a deep care for the well being and future of those they work with.’ Apart from this, while talking about the role of teacher he says that, Teacher is one who knows the subject matter and their role is to communicate or to share the knowledge with students through communication.

While talking about the role of the teacher Plato says that,

Do not then train child by force and harshness, but direct them to it by what amuses their minds so that you may be better able to discover with accuracy the peculiar bent of the genius of each.

-Plato

Conclusion:

So, here it can be seen that Plato was a great educationist and the foundation of the education process that he laid is unique in its own!

And I apologise from all the scholars as well as readers, that there are so many things yet left to be said in consideration of Plato: an Educationist. I have tried to include what I have understood and read until today. So if any important aspect is left then will try to cover by updating the post.

Teacher: A Person With Various Personalities

In life many people come and leave; life goes on. We learn, enrich and try to make a better version of our own self.

When we talk of making improvements in self or to become better than before; the main thing that plays an important role in it is Education. Education is a necessity for the current time. Without educating self one cannot stand properly in front of the society, self and life.

Now, whenever a person tries to do something new in life he must have to make himself aware of that thing. One has to search and think on different aspects of it, then he can prepare a draft and can execute the plan to do that thing. While doing so we always try to look for someone who is already in that field or who have the information regarding it and can guide us. The person who does so is generally known as a guide. The guide is one who plays the role of path-shower. In our structure of education too, there is one such person who helps one to make a journey in such situations is known as Teacher.

It is said that a teacher lives many personalities in a single life. Here I would like to discuss some of them.

Teacher : A Guru

The concept of teacher as a ‘Guru’ is an ancient concept of India. In India, a Guru is one who is an educational and spiritual guide or master and who helps learners to become a spiritual person by realising the real self and ultimate truth. That’s why it is said that,

गुरुर् ब्रह्म, गुरुर् विष्णु, गुरुर् देवो महेश्वर|

गुरुर् साक्षात् परब्रह्म तस्मै श्री गुरवे नमः||

Guru is one who is representative of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. He is one who removes the palates of ignorance from one’s mind and leads to enlightenment, the realisation of self. In context to this, it is also said that the person who does not have Guru (teacher) in his life is considered as ‘Anatha’. It means that,

There are many spiritual and religious text of the Vedic era, which gives us an answer to the question ‘Who is a Guru?‘ One such ancient text named ‘Kathopanishad‘ says a guru is one who is preceptor who alone can guide the disciple on the spiritual path.

Now let us have a look at the concept of Teacher in the context of Western Ideology:

In western ideology, a teacher is one who has many different aspects. According to it, the teacher is not just a teachet but he is a person with different identities. The line that shows the difference between two ideologies is that that, in the Indian context, a teacher is a person who plays many roles but at a whole, he does not remain a teacher only.

He is a guide for the all-round development of a child. While in western ideology, a teacher plays many roles but they all are individual. They do not unify it a whole, rather they are organised in such a way that one can draw distinguish line easily. Let us have a look at them:

A Teacher as Motivator:

The first and foremost role that a teacher plays is the role of motivator. Every student in the class is different from each other. They are unique in themselvs. The teacher’s duty is to find out that uniqueness in the child and to promote the child to enhance that ability in which he is master.

For that he/she has to keep the student motivate and to make them realise about their potentialities as well as do work on it. In this way, a teacher becomes the biggest motivator for students.

Teacher : A Role Model

The role that influences to a large extent on the student’s mind is to become a role model for them. Every teacher keeps a unique strategy to teach the students. While teaching they use some techniques that make their teaching different from the rest. This way of teaching is normal for the teachers but this is what makes them unique in the perspective of students. And they start to imagine themselves as to be like their teacher in future.

Teacher : A Mentor

The teacher can be a mentor too! Now the question is who can be considered as a mentor for one. In simple words, in my opinion, a mentor is one who is connected with more practical aspects of the thing. When a student starts his journey of life as an adult and mature person, he cultivates the attitude of being more specific regarding things. The role of the teacher as a mentor is to help students in identifying their goals and purpose of life. He/she helps them to become what they really want to be by identifying their potentialities.

Teacher : An Instructor and Supporter

Another major role that a teacher plays is of an instructor and supporter. As we know, the teacher is the biggest source of knowledge. He is the one who plays an important role in life or can be said, in the construction and development of the child after the parents. That’s why teachers are also considered a second parent for the child.

As a teacher, in the classroom teacher conducts different activities for students. Along with that she also tries to use different strategies for making the teaching-learning process more active. For that one such strategy is known as Project-based Learning. In which a teacher plays the role of an instructor and supporter to carry out the projects and simultaneously to carry out the learning process. (To learn more about PBL visit my post on https://mihirvalerablog.wordpress.com/2020/07/11/project-based-learning-a-strategy-for-effective-teaching-and-learning-in-classrooms/). So in this way teacher plays two roles at a time to enhance the teaching-learning process and to make it more productive.

Teacher : A Resource Person

The teacher along with an instructor also plays the role of a resource person in one’s life. As a teacher when he/she teach to the learners, simultaneously he also helps them by providing some useful materials to read. As a resource person, a teacher prepares the materials for reference for the students. One who is making research on any topic as a research scholar then, teacher helps him as a resource person to conduct and complete the research successfully.

As a resource person, the role of the teacher is to give assistance to the students. Whenever a student is having any kind of difficulties then the teacher tries to moderate or remove that and makes students vision clear about that particular thing. He/she conducts different activities and monitors the progress of the learners. So as a resource person teacher he helps leaners in getting success and to be clear and specific.

Teacher : An Administrator

Another major work that teachers have been doing is administration. Today there are many schools which do not have an office clerk for their school to manage administrative work. In such cases teachers play a major role in the schools by doing different works like providing admissions, collecting fees, keeping records of teachers, students, etc. For example, if a student leaves the school then many times teacher does all the processes and so on.

Teacher : A Reformer

Education is a medium or a weapon through which one can bring reformation as well as a change in society. The teacher is the central figure in the education system. As a teacher, while teaching teacher brings awareness among children and ultimately in society. He plays an active role in society. In the social structures and systems, there are many things which should be removed or in which change is required.

Social customs and traditions have to be gone under the process of reformation according to the change of time. The teacher is one who plays an important role in the reformation process in society by taking active participation in the process.

Conclusion:

So here it can be seen that a teacher plays many different roles while living his/her life as a teacher and leads the education system effectively.

Post Covid World : A View

Today the whole world is passing through a Pendamic, COVID-19. The people, especially medical members, are battling with an invisible enemy Corona. A virus which has took the lives of around 8,83,846 people across the globe. Though many have been recovered and came back to home. The recovery number from COVID has increased to about 17.9 million people across the globe.

At present, it has been nine months have passed from the date the first case of corona virus. Now the virus has been spread almost all the parts of the world and now the world has begun to live life with it. It has compelled us to live life with care and to realise what we have done with nature and our own self in the race of making life better than yeaterday, by all different tools and products to make our life comfortable.

Now its a time to think are they really necessary in life? Can’t we live life with less number of comforts? There are so many points like these on which one has to think now. The reason behind this is that, many scholars have stated that this pendamic has realised that the kind of life and the kind of damage that we have done to the nature that is to be repaid now. Otherwise the upcoming days will be worst than today.

It is no doubt that this pendamic has been come from bats. But it is to be thought that why it happened so? On the other hand it is true that the reason behind spreading corona virus is still in the cage of question mark. But thats not the point I want to discuss here but i would like to throw light on the reason of it. The answer of question ‘WHY’. The answer can be like we have not given enough care to our own self. We just focused on success and failure but we forgot to think the thing that makes us able to think so.

The another point that is to be noticed that the Covid has spread a lot due to weak health of human beings. The fast life of 21st century is too fast that humans have forgot to think over his/her own self. We have directed our thinking to our progress and success only. But this pendamic has compelled us to think over it.

Now let us have a look on post covid. Now it can be new term to discuss but have to look and develop our mindset for upcomig time with that.

When the covid spread across the world; the whole world got a sudden break. The whole world got shocked and was not in position to think what is this? Becasue the whole world was paused. The humanity came in danger; the people started to die every now and then. Gradually thus ratio has increased and it is still increasing. Many industries and all the sectors have stopped. It has compelled people to change themselves and to begin a complete new life.

The life that has been begun to live before around six months is now going to be life for several years to come. It will change but there will not be big changes. One will have to start life from zero which means one will have to start life with minimum facilities. As well as one will have to start live according to nature also. A person will have to follow the nature. The cycle of nature has changed now a days. We have to bring it in normal position again to have a better life ahead and to sustain humanity.

We know that while any kind of imbalance gets generate in anything or any work we do, then it becomes slight different than what we have expected. The same has happened with nature. In nature also this imbalancement has been generated long back and today it has crossed all its limits. And it is the reason why we are facing more natural disasters than before but in different forms.

It is still not clear that when actually the vaccine will come and will be get by whole humanity. One approximate calculation has been done and according to it, the whole humantiy will get vaccine around 2022. Atlest 2 to 3 years will take to vaccinate the whole world from the day vaccine will take its final form.

Now if we look to the work pattern of people then it is observed now a days that people prefer to work from their homes only. It is a new trend in all the sectors of the world. People have cultivated the habit of working from home only. In upcoming days this trend is going to be most useful and necessary to save ourselves from such conditions.

Along with it, the people have begun to go back to their previous lifestyle or have begun to bring it in present with some changes. This is most important change is gonig to come. Men is gonig to back to his old nature that is to live with nature. Now the people are giving enough attention towards the changes that is happening in nature. They are strongly active to reduce the ratio of it and to bring life normal.

Blending of Self-Control and Self-Development with Life

At first reading, this seems something more philosophical thing but in reality, it’s very practical in present times. Self-control is something which is connected directly with the thinking pattern of a person. The kind of thinking one has will become an exact reflection of it in visible form. Simultaneously, the kind of thoughts that one follows it defines the pattern of his thinking process. In this perspective, self-control is directly concerned with the thinking of an individual.

It is well known that Self-development is the most necessary thing in life, because if one can develop his self, then only he can make progress and can walk with time.

The process of self-development begins with knowing our own self and our own mind. When one starts to know and identity his own self; then, he can find out his own potentialities. This process of identifying our potentialities is what known as, in general, knowing the self.

When one tries to look at these both points in the context of life then it can be said that both are inevitable and can’t be ignored anyway. When we talk in the perspective of Life then, one cannot ignore them. One has to achieve mastery over both to lead successful and sustained life ahead. The reason is, in life, success never comes alone. It comes with a sense of superiority. When one gets success, no doubt he moves one step ahead than others but when with that success if one generates a sense of superiority then he can become arrogant and vanity takes over his mind and controls it. When this happens one becomes uncontrolled and loses self-control too.

In this way, vanity takes one’s everything from him and brings down from the height of success in life. Along with it, due to this reason, it also stops the process of self-development. One cannot develop his self with such an attitude. So, after all, these two things also matter of attitude in the words of psychology.

One more thing is to be noticed that, Self-Control and self-development are ultimately two sides of the same coin. As I said earlier, they both move together because only control over self brings development. And most important development brings or rather comes with success itself. Though this is just a view. It cant be considered as whole truth of universe and life.

So here we can see that these two things should be enough developed and blended with each other in one’s life. The reason behind this is that blending gives one strength to make development and to progress in life.

Here a question arises that What is Self-control at all?

Self-control is the ability of one to control over his affective domain, thoughts and at last behaviour. The affective domain is given by a famous American Psychologist named Benjamin Bloom in his Bloom’s Taxonomy’. The affective domain is mainly concerned with the emotions of a human being. Emotions are something that plays a very important role in the progress and development of human being and life.

When one perfectly attains success over his own feelings or emotions then he makes himself able to develop a strait forward-thinking in life. Because in life emotion plays an important role in the development of one’s thinking and his capacity to make decisions. Here it should be understood that decisions can be taken in two different ways, one is through the mind or by the following mind only. The other method is through our affective domain. One who takes decisions on that bases of emotions then there is a possibility that that particular decision may harm or do not work for one at all. So while taking decisions it is most important that which one base you take while converting your view in your decision. Because, I think that to a certain extent one’s decision is, after all, one’s view only. Hereby ‘view’, I mean the perspective that one chooses while taking decisions in life.

So, when a person takes over the whole process of taking decisions and stuck his thinking with one perspective and lead himself further then it can be said that the person has achieved control over self. Because when this happens the person becomes stable and he can’t allow himself or can be said that he cannot fluctuate in such moments.

We all know that development happens when one is straight forward and dedicated to his goals. This dedication comes with the self-control and when dedication is there then ultimately the development is bound to happen. So in this way, the ability of Self-Control and helps to develop ourselves in life. And when both, self-control and self-development, exists then ones life gets filled with all happiness and it becomes a successful life.

Problem-based Learning

It is widely known that one of the causes of human learning is the generation of a question in the human mind that why is it so? What is the reason behind the birth of this particular condition? Such questions ignite one to go in quest of that element or cause which gave birth to the particular situation. This nature of a human being has been observed by researchers and ultimately they gave birth to the whole theory of learning; which is nowadays popularly known as, Problem Based Learning.

Now here one question takes place that what is a problem- based learning after all? In response to this query we can say that, ‘Problem-based Learning is one of the teaching strategies where real-world issues are used as a tool to promote learners learning of concepts and principles as opposed to direct presentation of facts and concepts.’ Here in this description of the term, it can be seen that PBL (problem-based learning) is one technique or strategy that is used in the classroom for promoting self-learning as well their thinking abilities; through, giving them issues on different things and learners will be instructed to find out solutions. For this process, the students will be exposed to the real conditions of life.

Now, before going deep, let us understand the meaning and see the definition given by scholars of the field.

Definitions:

“The learning that results from the process of working toward the understanding or resolution of a problem.”

Barrows & Tamblyn, Problem-Based Learning : An Approach to Medical Education, 1980, p.18.

Another definition of PBL says:

It is a method of learning in which learners first encounter a problem following a systematic, learner centered inquiry and reflection process.

Teacher and Education Development, 2002, p.2.

In regard to PBL well-known educationist, John Dewey has also given his ideas. In his opinion,

The principle idea behind Problem-based Learning is that the starting point for learning should be a problem, a query or a puzzle that the learner wishes to solve.

When we start to go deep in search of the emergence of the method then it can be seen that there is no single view on it. To a large extent, the roots of Problem-based learning is to be found in the medical field. In medical we can find the works of different scholars on it. One of the scholars who tried to explain this in the context of medical was Barrows. He has given his ideas on PBL in the book named, PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING: AN APPROACH TO MEDICAL EDUCATION.

Howard Barrows was an American physician and professor. He was born in the United States of America. He got education from different universities in the USA. Barrows wanted to evolve a method which can be useful while instructing to physicians and which can foster their abilities. For him the ultimate objective of medical education was,

To produce doctors capable of managing health problems of those who seek their servicies, in a competent and humane way. To do this, the doctors…must have both knowledge and ability to use it.”

(Barrows 1985)

After some period of time, the method has shown its results and it got a satisfactory success rate in medical. By seeing this progress the method subsequently started to accept in rest of the field too; just like, education. When people applied this technique they found that it generates a kind of attitude in the people and fills them with full of eagerness to seek knowledge and motivation. When Barrows started getting positive results, so he designed a chain of problems for students which helped them to go deep and beyond conventional spheres of studying cases.

When we try to look all the definitions and views of PBL and try to put in the simple language then it can be said that Problem-based learning is a method in which students are exposed to the problem and then it gives them an opportunity to solve the issue/query. After that, this process gets an end with a reflection process on the learning outcome that has been done by learner. Along with it, students become able to develop a view to see things from a different perspective.

Now if we look towards an aspect of how it works then it can be said that it works by presenting a problem in front of the students. This is the first step of what we generally call a process. After this stage, the students try to understand the problem that is given to them. The students have to find out a solution for the query that has been provided to them. Learners are not being instructed in the problem-based learning by teachers as they do while project-based learning. I find this as the main difference between these two different strategies of learning.

Problem-based learning is an instructional strategy for teaching. It helps learners to improve their different thinking skills; for example, critical thinking, problem-solving etc. Apart from that when a teacher applies this strategy in the classroom then it helps students to develop their own thinking and makes them a deep thinker.

In the classroom when a teacher applies the theory of problem-based learning then, first he starts with making a small group of students and giving them different tasks solve. The students imply their knowledge and understanding to solve it out. For example, there is an area where a lot of people have lost their lives in accidents. So a teacher brings this issue in the classroom and presents it in front of the class. The teacher gives instructions to the students and tells them to give proper solutions that can be applied to bring the number of deaths at a lower level. Along with it she/he asked them to give a solution to prevent such incidents in future. The students in response came up with multiple answers to resolve the problem. This is an example of problem-based learning.

The theory of Problem based learning is mainly oriented around the progress of the students. In this students works in groups by exploring real life scenarios with the guidance of a tutor. In process students work together and tries to build a strong web of interconnected information. They gain the knowledge and then try to solve the real world problems.

Problem-based Learning is a strategy which works on the bases of the laws of the psychological theory of constructivism. As per the laws of constructivism, a student acquires knowledge and forms the meaning based upon their own understanding. In this process, one tries to assimilate the things with each other and tries to create something new out of acquired knowledge.

The Problem-based Learning helps to develop different skills like, team work, critical thinking, communication abilities and makes students life long learners. In PBL students works by exploration and they work in group of 4-5 students and enhance their learning as well as construct their knowledge in active manner. It is said and proven that, when a learner learns in active manner they becomes able to learn things practical way. When a learner learns thing in such way it helps them to remember things very well .

In educational settings, there are always two types of objectives, respectively, short term and long term. Both kinds of objectives are necessary to carry out the educational process effectively. But while the teacher applies PBL in the classroom the long term objectives becomes more valuable than a shorter one. In this context, it can be said that PBL is useful not just for learning for the limited span of time, instead, it is also useful for a longer period of time too.

So here it can be seen that PBL helps a lot to students in the process of acquiring knowledge. It becomes a very easygoing process for students to learn new things in a practical way with the use of PBL.

Now, at last, I would like to mention some points as has been noted by well-known speaker and author named Nilson, L. B.(2010) that how PBL helps students:

1.) It helps while working in teams 2.) While managing projects and holding roles 3.) Increases the ratio of oral and written communication 4.) Increases self-awareness and evaluation process 5.) Encourages to work independently 6.) Helps to develop the skills of critical thinking and analysis 7.) Encourages self-directed learning 8.) Develops the ability to explain concepts and so on.

Conclusion :

Here at the concluding point, it can be said that PBL is an interesting and very useful strategy in teaching. It helps a lot to develop various skills and abilities in students as well as they become self-independent and active learners.

Education : A Sketch

Education, a word which consists of so many things within it. It is a tool, a medium and so on. As like the roots of a tree is integrated and connected with each other in such a way that the tree can able to stand against all kind of natural changes. There are many roots that are connected with a single root which ultimately helps a tree to stand for a long period of time. In the same manner, education is a tree which has so many roots as well as, as a grown tree it has various branches too!

Now here the question arises that, what is education at all? Many educationists have given the definition of education. From ancient time to the present, various intellectuals have given their views on the term education. Let us see some ideas:

“Education is the process of the individual mind, getting to its full possible development.”         

-Dr. Zakir Husain

“Education is the process of living through a continuous reconstruction of experiences.”

– John Dewey

“By education I mean all-round drawing out of the best in child and man – body, mind and spirit.”     

-Mahatma Gandhi

If we try to analyse the definitions of education given by different educationists then it can be said that education is a process of obtaining knowledge and to make an individual better than yesterday. The goal of education is to become a well structured, to evolve good thinking skills and, ultimately, to have a good life. In another way, it is also a process of knowing about self and to know the self and to become the best version of ourselves.

Educating self is a fundamental thing to live in this world in a better way. Through education, one can make his/her life better than today as well as, can update oneself. This update can be in many ways like, in the process of thinking, the way of thinking and way of looking at things and world. Different types of skills can be developed with the help of education. For example critical thinking, creative thinking, problem-solving, etc. These skills are useful to make life better. They help to be different and to be unique in the world; though it depends that how one works on the development of them.

In general, education has been divided into several stages. These stages can be listed as, pre-school, primary school, secondary school and then college, university or apprenticeship. All these stages have been divided on the bases of the kind of education that is given to students at each stage.

To a larger view, a child gets an education from school. But that’s not the case. One gets an education from many places, he also educates self from his experiences outside the school as well as from within. This education can be generally distributed or divided into three different categories; respectively, Formal Education, Informal Education and Non-formal Education.

Formal Education:

Formal Education is the most common and well-known form of education. Formal education means, in general, an education which a child gets within the predefined structure. A structure which has been planned with a particular end in view. It is given in schools, colleges, universities, and such similar institutions. These institutions are designed and established with a specific purpose. Simultaneously it is also limited to a specific span of time. In such institutions, education is delivered by well qualified and skilled teachers. They follow a predetermined and systematic curriculum for teaching students in institutions.

Informal Education:

Informal education is one of the education which one acquires without being much aware and paying much concentration to it. It is a kind of education that one can get in any situation of life and from anyone. Informal education is not imparted by any specialised persons or institutions. Rather it can be gained by incidents. Due to this reason, it can also be classified as an incidental education.

Informal education includes skill development, cultivation of values, development of attitudes and to acquire different types of skills without going to any institution or organisations. In informal education, one can also include the deliberate attempts of parents and elders of the family and community to help the young people to grow and develop. Here we can observe that informal education is never pre-planned nor deliberate. A child learns things informally by living with and moving in different people and situations. The process of learning through different experiences is one of the examples of informal education.

Non-Formal Education

Non-formal, the word itself suggests the purpose, which is to get an education in the opposite manner of formal education. The concept of non-formal education has been derived from the concept of formal education itself. The reason is, like formal education, informal education also has its own structure and plan of execution. The only difference that is to be noticed between the formal education and non-formal education is, formal education is delivered within a specific structure while non-formal does not.

Non-formal education includes adult basic education, adult literacy education or school equivalency preparation. In this kind of education, one learns different basic skills of doing a job or work in an office or any other specific place. Non-formal education can be exemplified by distance learning, education at home, individual learning etc. The example of individual learning and informal learning is ‘programmed learning‘. The reason is that programmed learning works as per the need and requirement of learners. It also follows the speed of the learner and in it, the content is presented in a way that one can learn easily.

Examples of non-formal education: courses of adult education, sports programme such as swimming, river rafting etc. Such educations are given by specific organisations or institutions. In such programmes, education is provided as per the need and requirements of the learner. So in one way, it can also be considered as need-based education.

Conclusion

So, after this discussion, it can be said that all type of education is required in our life in all three ways. The reason they play their role in a varied manner in our life which, ultimately helps one to have a better life ahead!

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